Lexikon - Online Optiker

Sphärische Aberration

Unter sphärischer Aberration wird in der Linsenoptik ein Abbildungsfehler, oder auch Öffnungsfehler genannt, verstanden. Dieser Fehler tritt stets an gekrümmten Flächen auf. Der Grund dafür ist, dass die Lichtstrahlenbündel an der Randzone einer solchen gekrümmten Linsenfläche (Linse) stärker gebrochen werden, als zentrumnahe Lichtstrahlenbündel. Die Folge davon ist das entstehen mehrerer Brennpunkte über und unter der Linsenhauptachse, so daß ein etwas verschwommenes Bild entsteht.

Sphärische Aberration ist ein Abbildungsfehler

Diese Abweichung vom idealen Brennpunkt mit optimaler Bildschärfe nennt man Aberration. Neben der sphärischen Aberration gibt es noch die von der Wellenlänge des Lichtes abhängige, chromatische Aberration, die z.B. bei Achromaten (Linsensystem in Fotoapperaten) oder auch Achromatopsie genannt, berücksichtig und korrigiert werden muss, um scharfe (kontrastreiche) Bilder zu erzielen.

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